Phase II trial of 5-fluorouracil plus eniluracil in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group study.
BACKGROUND: Eniluracil is a potent, irreversible inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, the major catabolic enzyme for 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Pretreatment with eniluracil significantly increases plasma half-life, plasma concentration and oral bioavailability of 5-FU. This multicenter phase II trial was designed to estimate the 6-month survival rate in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas treated with 5-FU and eniluracil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixteen patients (61 with no prior chemotherapy and 55 with prior chemotherapy) were registered for treatment with eniluracil 50 mg (total dose) p.o. on days 1-7 and 5-FU 20 mg/m(2)/day p.o. on days 2-6 of a 28-day treatment cycle. RESULTS: In 106 patients evaluable for survival, the 6-month survival rate was 34% [95% confidence interval (CI) 22% to 47%, median survival 3.6 months] for patients who had not been treated previously with chemotherapy and 29% (95% CI 16% to 42%, median survival 3.4 months) for those who had received prior chemotherapy. For those patients with measurable disease, the confirmed response rates were 8% and 2%, respectively. The most common grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (29% of patients) and diarrhea (12% of patients). Overall, 69% of patients experienced a grade 3 or worse adverse event during treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the combination of a 7-day course of eniluracil and a 5-day course of oral 5-FU has limited activity in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, and is associated with a high frequency of clinically significant adverse events.
Rothenberg, ML; Benedetti, JK; Macdonald, JS; Seay, TE; Neubauer, MA; George, CS; Tanaka, MS; Giguere, JK; Pruitt, BT; Abbruzzese, JL
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