Chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and a platinum compound improves outcomes in metastatic small bowel adenocarcinoma.
BACKGROUND: Metastatic small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) has a poor prognosis. Because of the rarity of SBA, only a few studies have evaluated the role of chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic SBA; thus, the benefit, if any, of adding a platinum compound to fluorouracil (5-FU) is unknown. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine whether the addition of a platinum compound to 5-FU provided any benefit in the treatment of patients with metastatic SBA. METHODS: The authors identified 80 patients with metastatic SBA who were treated with chemotherapy at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center between 1978 and 2005. Response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between patients who received 5-FU and a platinum compound and patients who received other chemotherapy combinations. RESULTS: The median patient age was 53 years. The primary tumor site was the jejunum in 35 patients (43%), duodenum in 30 patients (38%), ileum in 6 patients (8%), and nonspecified small bowel in 9 patients (11%). Of all 80 patients, 29 patients (36%) received 5-FU and a platinum compound, 41 patients (51%) received 5-FU without a platinum compound, and 10 patients (13%) received non-5-FU-based treatment. Compared with other chemotherapy regimens, treatment with 5-FU and a platinum agent resulted in a higher response rate (46% vs 16% with other regimens; P = .01) and longer median PFS (8.7 months vs 3.9 months; P < or = .01) but not better OS (14.8 months vs 12 months; P = .1). In multivariate analysis, treatment with 5-FU and a platinum compound was a significant predictor of response (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-15.8; P = .02) and PFS (hazard ratio. 0.49; 95% CI, 0.29-0.84; P = .01) but only reached borderline significance for OS (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.37-1.07; P = .08). CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, the current analysis represents the largest number of patients with metastatic SBA treated with chemotherapy in the literature, and the results suggested that the combination of 5-FU and a platinum compound leads to a higher response rate and PFS compared with other chemotherapy regimes. The authors concluded that prospective investigation of platinum analogues in the treatment of SBA is warranted.
Overman, MJ; Kopetz, S; Wen, S; Hoff, PM; Fogelman, D; Morris, J; Abbruzzese, JL; Ajani, JA; Wolff, RA
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