Phase I study of preoperative oral uracil and tegafur plus leucovorin and radiation therapy in rectal cancer.
(Clinical Trial;Journal Article)
PURPOSE: Preoperative combined-modality therapy for rectal cancer may allow for sphincter preservation, while decreasing recurrence rates and improving the overall prognosis. Oral chemotherapy with uracil and tegafur (UFT) plus leucovorin (LV) may reduce costs and complications associated with protracted infusions of fluorouracil. Our goal was to evaluate the safety of UFT plus LV combined with preoperative radiation and determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of UFT plus LV in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with tumor-node-metastasis stage II or III rectal cancer received escalating doses of UFT (starting at 250mg/m(2)/d, with 50-mg/m(2)/d increments between consecutive cohorts) and fixed doses of LV (90 mg/d). The UFT and LV combination was given 5 days per week concurrently with a 5-week course of preoperative radiation totaling 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction). Surgery was performed 4 to 6 weeks after radiation and was followed by four 35-day cycles of fixed doses of UFT and LV (28 days of therapy each cycle). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were treated, and 13 received the full preoperative chemotherapy. All planned radiation was delivered successfully. The MTD of UFT with radiation was 350 mg/m(2)/d with 90 mg/d of LV. Diarrhea was the DLT. Sphincter-preserving surgery was performed in 12 of 14 patients. One patient had progressive disease before surgery. Pathologic evaluation of 14 resected specimens showed a complete response in three cases. CONCLUSION: Preoperative chemoradiation with oral UFT plus LV is feasible and well tolerated and should be further investigated.
Hoff, PM; Janjan, N; Saad, ED; Skibber, J; Crane, C; Lassere, Y; Cleary, KR; Benner, S; Randolph, J; Abbruzzese, JL; Pazdur, R
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