Lifestyle, occupational, and reproductive factors in relation to pancreatic cancer risk.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer in Egypt. METHODS: We obtained detailed information on smoking, occupational, medical, and reproductive histories from 194 pancreatic cancer cases and 194 controls. RESULTS: Compared with not smoking, smoking cigarettes alone or in conjunction with other smoking methods (eg, water pipe, cigar) was associated with an increased risk (odds ratio [OR], 4.5 and 7.8; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.9-10.7 and 3.0-20.6, respectively). Passive smoking was also a significant risk factor (OR, 6.0; 95% CI, 2.4-14.8). The risk of pancreatic cancer was elevated among subjects exposed to pesticides (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.97-7.2). A prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus for a period of 10 years was associated with higher risk (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5-19.9). For women, having 7 or more live births and lactating for 144 months or longer were associated with a reduced risk (OR, 0.5 and 0.2; 95% CI, 0.2-1.3 and 0.1-0.9, respectively). No association was found between family history, allergy, or obesity and pancreatic cancer in Egypt. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple tobacco consumption methods, passive smoking, pesticide exposures, and diabetes are associated with an increased risk for pancreatic cancer. Prolonged lactation and increased parity are associated with a reduced risk for pancreatic cancer.
Lo, A-C; Soliman, AS; El-Ghawalby, N; Abdel-Wahab, M; Fathy, O; Khaled, HM; Omar, S; Hamilton, SR; Greenson, JK; Abbruzzese, JL
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