Treatment strategies of arterial steal after arteriovenous access.
INTRODUCTION: Ischemic steal syndrome (ISS) associated with arteriovenous (AV) access is rare but can result in severe complications. Multiple techniques have been described to treat ISS with varying degrees of success. This study compares the management and success associated with these techniques. METHODS: Patients with ISS between June 2003 and June of 2008 at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics, type of AV access, management technique, and success of intervention were recorded. Success was defined as resolution of ISS symptoms while preserving access function. One hundred consecutive AV access procedures were reviewed for comparison. Data were analyzed using χ(2) test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test. The study was approved by our institutional review board. RESULTS: A total of 114 patients with ISS had a mean age of 65 years (range, 20-90 years), were predominantly female (66%), diabetic (61%), and with a brachial origin fistula (69%). Risk factors for ISS included coronary artery disease (CAD; P < .001), hypertension (P < .001), and tobacco use (P = .048). Women were noted to have a brachial origin access more frequently than men (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; P = .009). Forty-four patients with mild steal were observed. Seventy patients underwent 87 procedures. Procedures performed included ligation (n = 27), banding (n = 22), distal revascularization and interval ligation (DRIL; n = 21), improvement of proximal inflow (n = 9), revision using distal inflow (RUDI; n = 4), and proximalization of arterial inflow (PAI; n = 3). Early procedures (<30 days from the index fistula) were mostly ligation (50%) or banding (38%), while DRIL was the most frequent choice for late interventions (41%). Banding had a high failure rate (62%) and was the most common reason for reintervention (8 of 11, 73%) and DRIL had a better success rate than banding (P ≤ .05). In our current practice, 18% of patients had an AV fistula with the proximal radial artery (PRA) as the inflow source, while this type of fistula accounted for only 2% of all ISS patients. Ligation resolved symptoms in all patients, but the AV access was lost. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for development of ISS include CAD, diabetes, female gender, hypertension, and tobacco use. Among various options to treat ISS, banding has a low success rate and high likelihood for reintervention, while DRIL is particularly effective although not uniformly. Less invasive treatment options such as RUDI and PAI may be quite effective in treating ISS. Use of the PRA as the inflow source may decrease the incidence of ISS.
Gupta, N; Yuo, TH; Konig, G; Dillavou, E; Leers, SA; Chaer, RA; Cho, JS; Makaroun, MS
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