Potential psychosocial risk factors for chronic TMD: descriptive data and empirically identified domains from the OPPERA case-control study.
UNLABELLED: Case-control studies have consistently associated psychosocial factors with chronic pain in general, and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. Moreover, a handful of prospective studies suggest that preexisting psychosocial characteristics represent risk factors for new onset TMD. The current study presents psychosocial findings from the baseline case-control study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 1,633 TMD-free controls and 185 TMD cases completed a battery of psychosocial instruments assessing general psychosocial adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic awareness, and pain coping and catastrophizing. In bivariate and demographically adjusted analyses, odds of TMD were associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, affective distress, somatic awareness, and pain catastrophizing. Among controls, significant gender and ethnic group differences in psychosocial measures were observed, consistent with previous findings. Principal component analysis was undertaken to identify latent constructs revealing 4 components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychosocial symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. These findings provide further evidence of associations between psychosocial factors and TMD. Future prospective analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine if the premorbid presence of these psychosocial factors predicts increased risk for developing new onset TMD. PERSPECTIVE: This article reports baseline psychosocial findings from the OPPERA Study, a large prospective cohort study designed to discover causal determinants of TMD pain. Findings indicate significant differences between TMD cases and TMD-free controls across multiple psychosocial constructs, and future analyses will determine whether these psychosocial factors increase risk for new onset TMD.
Fillingim, RB; Ohrbach, R; Greenspan, JD; Knott, C; Dubner, R; Bair, E; Baraian, C; Slade, GD; Maixner, W
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