Activation of kappa opioid receptors by U50488H and morphine enhances the release of substance P from rat trigeminal nucleus slices.
The modulation of the release of substance P (SP) from sensory primary afferents by activation of kappa opioid receptors is not only equivocal, but also contradictory. Thus, in the present study, we have determined the effect of nanomolar concentrations of the highly selective kappa opioid receptor agonist trans-(+)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-[2-91- (pyrrolidinyl)cyclohexyl]benzacetamide methane sulphonate (U50488H), as well as micromolar concentrations of moderately mu-selective agonist morphine, on K(+)-evoked SP release from rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis slices. U50488H (10-30 nM) and morphine (10-30 microM) increased K(+)-evoked SP release without stimulating basal SP release. Both U50488H and morphine concentration-response curves were biphasic because the highest and the lowest concentrations of U50488H (100 nM) and morphine (3 microM) tested, respectively, inhibited SP release. Enhancement of K(+)-evoked SP release induced by 30 nM U50488H and 30 microM morphine was blocked by the opioid receptor antagonists naloxone (30 nM; nontype selective) and norbinaltorphimine (3 nM; kappa selective), but not by N,N diallyl Tyr-Aib-Aib-Phe-Leu (0.3 microM; delta selective), naloxonazine (1 nM; mu 1 selective) or beta-funaltrexamine (20 nM; mu selective). These findings indicate that activation of at least one population of kappa opioid receptors increases the release of SP from trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Excitatory presynaptic kappa opioid receptors on SP-containing primary afferents may be involved in the hyperalgesia of inflammatory processes, the "anti-analgesic" effect of dynorphin and the paradoxical "analgesia" produced by low doses of naloxone.
Suarez-Roca, H; Maixner, W
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