Genetic polymorphisms of p21 and risk of second primary malignancy in patients with index squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
p21 plays an important role in modulating cell cycle control, inducing apoptosis, and inhibiting cell growth, subsequently affecting cancer risk. We investigated the association between two putatively functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of p21 (p21 C98A and p21 C70T) among 1282 patients diagnosed with incident squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and risk of second primary malignancy (SPM) in an ongoing molecular epidemiology study. We used Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard models to assess the association of these two SNPs with SPM-free survival and SPM risk. We found that patients with either p21 variant genotypes of the two polymorphisms had a significantly reduced SPM-free survival compared with patients with either p21 wild-type homozygous genotypes (Log-rank test, P = 0.0016). Compared with patients having the p21 98 CC and p21 70 CC genotypes, the patients having p21 98 CA/AA and p21 70 CT/TT variant genotypes had a significantly greater risk of developing SPM, respectively, [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.14-2.82 for p21 C98A and HR = 1.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16-2.85 for p21 C70T]. Moreover, after combining the variant genotypes of two SNPs, patients with variant genotypes had a significantly moderately increased risk for SPM compared with patients with no variant genotypes (HR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.26-3.00), and the risk was particularly pronounced in several subgroups. Our results support an increased risk of SPM after index SCCHN with both p21 polymorphisms individually and in combination.
Lei, D; Sturgis, EM; Liu, Z; Zafereo, ME; Wei, Q; Li, G
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