Human papillomavirus type 16 infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in never-smokers: a matched pair analysis.
PURPOSE: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 has been suggested to be a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and to be more commonly associated with SCCHN occurring in the oropharynx and in never-smokers. We hypothesized that HPV-16 exposure, as evidenced by seropositivity, is a risk factor for SCCHN and may be of particular importance in never-smokers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: To test this hypothesis, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 120 patients with SCCHN (60 never-smokers and 60 matched smokers) and 120 cancer-free matched controls. We compared the presence of HPV-16 antibodies in ever-smoker and never-smoker patients matched on age (+/-5 years), sex, and tumor site. Each patient was also matched with a corresponding ever-smoker or never-smoker cancer-free control on age (+/-5 years) and sex. Serum was collected from study subjects and assayed for IgG reactivity to HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles by using an ELISA. RESULTS: Forty-nine of the 120 case subjects (40.8%) but only 11 (9.2%) of the control subjects tested positive for HPV-16 antibodies (adjusted odds ratio, 6.69; 95% confidence interval, 3.01-14.90). Among cases, HPV-16 seropositivity was more common in those with oropharyngeal cancer (41 of 70, 58.6%) and poorly differentiated tumors (25 of 43, 58.1%). HPV-16 seropositivity was associated with a significantly increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 59.53; 95% confidence interval, 5.71-620.20). Whereas HPV-16 seropositivity was more common in never-smokers with SCCHN than in ever-smokers (43.3% versus 38.3%, respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: HPV-16 infection is associated with a significant increased risk for oropharyngeal cancer but not oral cavity cancer. Furthermore, HPV-16 infection does not appear to be more common in never-smokers than ever-smokers with SCCHN.
Dahlstrom, KR; Adler-Storthz, K; Etzel, CJ; Liu, Z; Dillon, L; El-Naggar, AK; Spitz, MR; Schiller, JT; Wei, Q; Sturgis, EM
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