A rat model reproducing key pathological responses of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis
Although alcohol abuse is the major cause of chronic pancreatitis, the pathogenesis of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) remains obscure. A critical obstacle to understanding the mechanism of ACP is lack of animal models. Our objective was to develop one such model. Rats were pair-fed for 8 wk ethanol or control Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet. For the last 2 wk, they received cyclosporin A (CsA; 20 mg/kg once daily) or vehicle. After 1 wk on CsA, one episode of acute pancreatitis was induced by four 20 μg/kg injections of cerulein (Cer); controls received saline. Pancreas was analyzed 1 wk after the acute pancreatitis. CsA or Cer treatments alone did not result in pancreatic injury in either control (C)- or ethanol (E)-fed rats. We found, however, that alcohol dramatically aggravated pathological effect of the combined CsA+Cer treatment on pancreas, resulting in massive loss of acinar cells, persistent inflammatory infiltration, and fibrosis. Macrophages were prominent in the inflammatory infiltrate. Compared with control-fed C+CsA+Cer rats, their ethanol-fed E+CsA+Cer counterparts showed marked increases in pancreatic NF-κB activation and cytokine/chemokine mRNA expression, collagen and fibronectin, the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, and activation of pancreatic stellate cells. Thus we have developed a model of alcohol-mediated postacute pancreatitis that reproduces three key responses of human ACP: loss of parenchyma, sustained inflammation, and fibrosis. The results indicate that alcohol impairs recovery from acute pancreatitis, suggesting a mechanism by which alcohol sensitizes pancreas to chronic injury. Copyright © 2008 the American Physiological Society.
Gukovsky, I; Lugea, A; Shahsahebi, M; Cheng, JH; Hong, PP; Jung, YJ; Deng, Q-G; French, BA; Lungo, W; French, SW; Tsukamoto, H; Pandol, SJ
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