Growth hormone regulates phosphorylation and function of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta by modulating Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3.
Growth hormone (GH) regulates transcription factors associated with c-fos, including C/EBPbeta. Two forms of C/EBPbeta, liver-activating protein (LAP) and liver inhibitory protein (LIP), are dephosphorylated in GH-treated 3T3-F442A fibroblasts. GH-induced dephosphorylation of LAP and LIP is reduced when cells are preincubated with phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors. GH activates Akt and inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Lithium, a GSK-3 inhibitor, increases GH-dependent dephosphorylation of LAP and LIP. Both are in vitro substrates of GSK-3, suggesting that GSK-3 inactivation contributes to GH-promoted dephosphorylation of C/EBPbeta. Alkaline phosphatase increases binding of LAP homodimers and decreases binding of LIP homodimers to c-fos, suggesting that dephosphorylation of C/EBPbeta modifies their ability to bind DNA. Both alkaline phosphatase- and GH-mediated dephosphorylation comparably increase binding of endogenous LAP in 3T3-F442A cells. In cells overexpressing LAP and GSK-3, LAP binding decreases, suggesting that GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation interferes with LAP binding. Expression of constitutively active GSK-3 reduced GH-stimulated c-fos promoter activity. These studies indicate that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3 mediates signaling between GH receptor and the nucleus, promoting dephosphorylation of C/EBPbeta. Dephosphorylation increases binding of LAP complexes to the c-fos promoter and may contribute to the participation of C/EBPbeta in GH-stimulated c-fos expression.
Piwien-Pilipuk, G; Van Mater, D; Ross, SE; MacDougald, OA; Schwartz, J
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