Quantification of 1-aminopyrene in human urine after a controlled exposure to diesel exhaust.
Diesel exhaust (DE) is a significant source of air pollution that has been linked to respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Many components in DE, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are present in the environment from other sources. 1-Nitropyrene appears to be a more specific marker of DE exposure. 1-Nitropyrene is partially metabolized to 1-aminopyrene and excreted in urine. We developed a practical, sensitive method for measuring 1-aminopyrene in human urine using a HPLC-fluorescence technique. We measured 1-aminopyrene concentrations in spot urine samples collected prior to and during 24 h following the start of 1 h controlled exposures to DE (target concentration 300 microg m(-3) as PM(10)) and clean air control. Time-weighted-average concentrations of urinary 1-aminopyrene were significantly greater following the DE exposure compared to the control (median 138.7 ng g(-1) creatinine vs. 21.7 ng g(-1) creatinine, p < 0.0001). Comparing DE to control exposures, we observed significant increases in 1-aminopyrine concentration from pre-exposure to either first post-exposure void or peak spot urine concentration following exposure (p = 0.027 and p = 0.0026, respectively). Large inter-individual variability, in both the concentration of urinary 1-aminopyrene and the time course of appearance in the urine following the standardized exposure to DE, suggests the need to explore subject variables that may affect conversion of inhaled 1-nitropyrene to urinary excretion of 1-aminopyrene.
Laumbach, R; Tong, J; Zhang, L; Ohman-Strickland, P; Stern, A; Fiedler, N; Kipen, H; Kelly-McNeil, K; Lioy, P; Zhang, J
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