Evaluation and comparison of continuous fine particulate matter monitors for measurement of ambient aerosols.
To provide a scientific basis for the selection and use of continuous monitors for exposure and/or health effects studies, and for compliance and episode measurements at strategic locations in the State of New Jersey, we evaluated the performance of seven continuous fine particulate matter (PM2.5) monitors in the present study. Gravimetric samplers, as reference methods, were collocated with realtime instruments in both laboratory and field tests. The results of intercomparison of real-time monitors showed that the two nephelometers used in this study correlated extremely well (r2 approximately 0.97), and two tapered element oscillating monitors (TEOM 1400 and TEOM filter dynamics measurement system [FDMS]) correlated well (r2 > 0.85), whereas two beta gauges displayed a weaker correlation (r2 < 0.6). During a summertime controlled (laboratory) evaluation, the measurements made with the gravimetric method correlated well with the 24-hr integrated measurements made with the real-time monitors. The SidePak nephelometer overestimated the particle concentration by a factor of approximately 3.4 compared with the gravimetric method. During a summertime field evaluation, the TEOM FDMS monitor reported approximately 30% higher mass concentration than the Federal Reference Method (FRM); and the difference could be explained by the loss of semi-volatile materials from the FRM sampler. Results also demonstrated that 24-hr average PM2.5 mass concentrations measured by beta gauges and TEOM (50 degrees C) in winter correlated well with the integrated gravimetric method. Seasonal differences were observed in the performance of the TEOM (50 degrees C) monitor in measuring the particle mass attributed to the higher semi-volatile material loss in the winter weather. In applying the realtime particulate matter monitoring data into Air Quality Index (AQI) reporting, the Conroy method and the 8-hr end-hour average method were both found to be suitable.
Zhu, K; Zhang, J; Lioy, PJ
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