PGC-1 coactivators regulate MITF and the tanning response.
The production of pigment by melanocytes tans the skin and protects against skin cancers. UV-exposed keratinocytes secrete α-MSH, which then activates melanin formation in melanocytes by inducing the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). We show that PPAR-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and PGC-1β are critical components of this melanogenic system in melanocytes. α-MSH signaling strongly induces PGC-1α expression and stabilizes both PGC-1α and PGC-1β proteins. The PGC-1s in turn activate the MITF promoter, and their expression correlates strongly with that of MITF in human melanoma cell lines and biopsy specimens. Inhibition of PGC-1α and PGC-1β blocks the α-MSH-mediated induction of MITF and melanogenic genes. Conversely, overexpression of PGC-1α induces pigment formation in cell culture and transgenic animals. Finally, polymorphism studies reveal expression quantitative trait loci in the PGC-1β gene that correlate with tanning ability and protection from melanoma in humans. These data identify PGC-1 coactivators as regulators of human tanning.
Shoag, J; Haq, R; Zhang, M; Liu, L; Rowe, GC; Jiang, A; Koulisis, N; Farrel, C; Amos, CI; Wei, Q; Lee, JE; Zhang, J; Kupper, TS; Qureshi, AA; Cui, R; Han, J; Fisher, DE; Arany, Z
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