4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced mutagen sensitivity and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer: a case-control analysis.
The UV radiation-mimetic chemical 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) is thought to induce squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) similar to those induced by UV radiation in animals. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cellular sensitivity to 4-NQO is associated with risk of developing skin cancer in a case-control study of 191 patients with nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC; 81 SCC and 110 basal cell carcinoma (BCC)) and 176 cancer-free controls. Short-term blood cultures were treated with 4-NQO at a final concentration of 10 microM for 24 hours and scored for chromatid breaks in 50 well-spread metaphases. We found that the mean frequency of chromatid breaks per cell (b/c) was significantly higher in the cases (mean+/-SD, 0.46+/-0.43 for SCC and 0.43+/-0.38 for BCC) than in the controls (0.25+/-0.25; P<0.001 for both comparisons) and were associated with more-than-twofold increased risk for both SCC and BCC after adjustment for known risk factors. Therefore, our findings support the notion that sensitivity to 4-NQO reflects susceptibility to UV-induced NMSC. However, there is a lack of correlation between UVB-induced b/c and 4-NQO-induced b/c in this study population. Therefore, these findings need to be verified by additional studies.
Wang, L-E; Hsu, TC; Xiong, P; Strom, SS; Duvic, M; Clayman, GL; Weber, RS; Lippman, SM; Goldberg, LH; Wei, Q
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