N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) modulates GADD45 expression in radiosensitive bladder cancer cell lines.
We previously demonstrated that N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) and gamma-irradiation, when used in combination, had a synergistic effect in inducing apoptosis in bladder cancer cells, suggesting that 4-HPR may increase radiosensitivity in bladder cancer cells. To unravel molecular correlates in this radiosensitizing effect of 4-HPR, we examined the baseline and 4-HPR-induced expression of GADD45 to elucidate possible mechanisms by which 4-HPR enhanced the effect of gamma-irradiation in three bladder cancer cell lines. To investigate the role of p53 in mediating the radiosensitizing effect of 4-HPR, we also examined mutations in exons 5-9 by using direct sequencing and the levels of p53 expression by using RT-PCR and Western blot, before and after treatment with 4-HPR in these bladder cancer cell lines. Two cell lines had low expression of GADD45, and a dose-dependent increase in GADD45 expression induced by 4-HPR was found in bladder cancer cell lines without p53 mutations in exons 5-9. A combination of gamma-irradiation and 4-HPR showed a significantly greater effect in enhancing GADD45 expression than either agent used alone. The results indicate that the combined treatment with 4-HPR and gamma-irradiation has a stronger effect on GADD45 expression than the treatment with either agent alone, which suggests that the two agents may have an additive/synergistic effect. However, a normal p53 function appears to be necessary for the dose-dependent induction of GADD45 by 4-HPR. Once our results are verified and replicated by other investigators, 4-HPR may have a potential clinical implication in effectively treating bladder cancer in combination with low-gamma-irradiation therapy.
Zou, C; Guan, Y; Zou, C; Wang, J; Wang, L-E; Liebert, M; Grossman, HB; Wei, Q
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