Effect of influenza virus vaccine on the expression of human immunodeficiency virus co-receptor CCR5.
BACKGROUND: Administration of influenza vaccine to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children can lead to increased viral load. CCR5 and CXCR4 are known to play an important role in HIV cell entry and viral replication. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of influenza vaccine on chemokine receptors and on viral load in HIV-infected children. METHODS: Eight HIV-infected children receiving stable therapy and 11 healthy adults were enrolled. Chemokine expression and immune activation were determined before and 48 hours after influenza vaccination. CCR5 and beta-chemokine gene expression were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Viral load was measured at baseline, 48 hours, and 6 to 12 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-eight hours after influenza vaccination, mean CCR5 expression was significantly decreased on the CD3 (21.1% vs 11.3% in HIV-infected children; P = .02; and 18.3% vs 10.7% in controls; P = .008) and CD4 (13.0% vs 3.6% in the HIV group; P = .04; and 13.6% vs 6.5% in controls; P = .02) lymphocytes. This was observed in conjunction with an increase in HLA-DR expression on T lymphocytes in HIV-infected children (P = .046). No significant changes were observed in HIV viral load, CD3 and CD8 lymphocyte counts, expression of interleukin 2 receptor and CXCR4, or gene expression of CCR5 and beta-chemokines 48 hours after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza virus vaccine markedly decreased chemokine receptor CCR5 expression on CD4 T lymphocytes. However, this immunomodulatory effect does not seem to affect overall viral replication in HIV-infected children who received highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Rucker, RP; Day, NK; Good, RA; Kamchaisatian, W; Emmanuel, P; Sleasman, JW; Mayeski, C; Dinglasan, E; Haraguchi, S; Tangsinmankong, N
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