A randomized, double-blind study of triple nucleoside therapy of abacavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine versus lamivudine and zidovudine in previously treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. The CNAA3006 Study Team.
OBJECTIVES: Abacavir (ABC) is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase. We compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of combination therapy with ABC, lamivudine (3TC), and zidovudine (ZDV) versus 3TC and ZDV in antiretroviral experienced HIV-1-infected children over 48 weeks. METHODS: Two hundred five HIV-1-infected children who had received previous antiretroviral therapy and had CD4(+) cell counts >/=100 cells/mm(3) were stratified by age and by previous treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to receive ABC (8 mg/kg twice daily [BID]) plus 3TC (4 mg/kg BID) and ZDV (180 mg/m(2) BID; ABC/3TC/ZDV group) or ABC placebo plus 3TC (4 mg/kg BID) and ZDV (180 mg/m(2); 3TC/ZDV group). Participants who met a protocol-defined switch criteria (plasma HIV-1 RNA >0.5 log(10) copies/mL above baseline at week 8 or >10 000 copies/mL after week 16) had the option to switch to open-label ABC plus any antiretroviral combination or continue randomized therapy or withdraw from the study. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier estimates (95% confidence interval) of the proportion of participants who maintained HIV-1 RNA levels 10 000 copies/mL, a significantly higher proportion of participants in the ABC/3TC/ZDV group had HIV-1 RNA
Sáez-Llorens, X; Nelson, RP; Emmanuel, P; Wiznia, A; Mitchell, C; Church, JA; Sleasman, J; Van Dyke, R; Richardson, CG; Cutrell, A; Spreen, W; Hetherington, S
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