Hyponatremia in pediatric patients with HIV-1 infection.
Hyponatremia has been recognized as a complication in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We did a retrospective study evaluating the medical records of 86 children (age 4 months to 21 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection to determine the frequency and clinical associations of hyponatremia. Twenty-two children (26%) developed hyponatremia (serum sodium < 135 mEq/L; range 104 to 134 mEq/L; mean 130 mEq/L). Fourteen were male; 18 of the 22 patients were black and 4 were white. At the time of hyponatremia, the children frequently had comorbid associations, including 8 (35%) with AIDS encephalopathy; 3 (14%) with cardiomyopathy; 3 (14%) using diuretics; 1 (5%) using pentamidine; 3 (14%) with bacterial pneumonia; 2 (9%) requiring gastric lavage feedings; 2 (9%) with tuberculosis meningitis; 2 (9%) with gastroenteritis; 1 (5%) with infection caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare; 1 (5%) each with brain tumor and tumor metastasis to brain. The cause of hyponatremia was attributed to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone in 8 children; poor sodium intake and/or excessive diarrheal losses in 5; and the use of diuretics in 3 patients. Mild hyponatremia with no identifiable cause was found in 5 patients.
Tolaymat, A; al-Mousily, F; Sleasman, J; Paryani, S; Neiberger, R
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