Associations between religion-related factors and cervical cancer screening among Muslims in greater chicago.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess rates of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing and associations between religion-related factors and these rates among a racially and ethnically diverse sample of American Muslim women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A community-based participatory research design was used in partnering with the Council of Islamic Organizations of Greater Chicago to recruit Muslim women attending mosque and community events. These participants self-administered surveys incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, perceived discrimination, Islamic modesty, and a marker of Pap test use. RESULTS: A total of 254 survey respondents were collected with nearly equal numbers of Arabs, South Asians, and African American respondents. Of these respondents, 84% had obtained a Pap test in their lifetime, with individuals who interpret disease as a manifestation of God's punishment having a lower odds of having had Pap testing after controlling for sociodemographic factors (odds ratio [OR]=0.87, 95% CI=0.77-1.0). In multivariate models, living in the United States for more than 20 years (OR=4.7, 95% CI=1.4-16) and having a primary care physician (OR=7.7, 95% CI=2.5-23.4) were positive predictors of having had a Pap test. Ethnicity, fatalistic beliefs, perceived discrimination, and modesty levels were not significantly associated with Pap testing rates. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess Pap testing behaviors among a diverse sample of American Muslim women and to observe that negative religious coping (e.g., viewing health problems as a punishment from God) is associated with a lower odds of obtaining a Pap test. The relationship between religious coping and cancer screening behaviors deserves further study so that religious values can be appropriately addressed through cancer screening programs.
Padela, AI; Peek, M; Johnson-Agbakwu, CE; Hosseinian, Z; Curlin, F
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