Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: recent trends, questions, and potential solutions.


Journal Article (Review)

Humans continue to transform the global nitrogen cycle at a record pace, reflecting an increased combustion of fossil fuels, growing demand for nitrogen in agriculture and industry, and pervasive inefficiencies in its use. Much anthropogenic nitrogen is lost to air, water, and land to cause a cascade of environmental and human health problems. Simultaneously, food production in some parts of the world is nitrogen-deficient, highlighting inequities in the distribution of nitrogen-containing fertilizers. Optimizing the need for a key human resource while minimizing its negative consequences requires an integrated interdisciplinary approach and the development of strategies to decrease nitrogen-containing waste.

Full Text

Cited Authors

  • Galloway, JN; Townsend, AR; Erisman, JW; Bekunda, M; Cai, Z; Freney, JR; Martinelli, LA; Seitzinger, SP; Sutton, MA

Published Date

  • May 2008

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 320 / 5878

Start / End Page

  • 889 - 892

PubMed ID

  • 18487183

Pubmed Central ID

  • 18487183

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1095-9203

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0036-8075

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1126/science.1136674


  • eng