Percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors: patient selection, technique, and postprocedural imaging.
Percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors requires a number of important steps for success and relies heavily on imaging for treatment planning, intraprocedural guidance and monitoring, detection of untreated tumor, and surveillance for disease progression. Imaging-guided percutaneous cryoablation has several advantages over laparoscopic cryoablation. In particular, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allow global evaluation of the ablation zone and an accurate depiction of the treatment margin. Ultrasonography allows real-time guidance of probe placement but cannot help depict ice ball formation as accurately as CT or MR imaging. Multiphasic CT or MR imaging should be performed at structured intervals following ablation. Treated tumors are expected to decrease in size over time, and lesion growth and internal or nodular enhancement are suspicious for tumor recurrence or progression. Complications include probe site pain, hematoma, incomplete ablation, and recurrent tumor. Current limitations of percutaneous cryoablation include the inability to control hemorrhage without intraarterial access and a lack of long-term follow-up data. Nevertheless, percutaneous cryoablation is an effective choice for minimally invasive nephron-sparing treatment of renal tumors.
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