Bahrain’s Position in the Global Apparel Value Chain: How the U.S.-Bahrain FTA and PTLs Shape Future Development Options


This report analyzes the situation of Bahrain’s industry and its prospects in light of the looming TPL expiration. The Bahraini industry oriented to the U.S. market contains two distinct segments: textile manufacturers, which own spinning, weaving and finishing mills in Bahrain, and rely on TPL for a relatively small portion (just over a third) of the final products they exports to the United States; and apparel companies, which currently rely on TPL for 100% of their garment exports to the United States, since these contain fabrics and yarn from third party countries, such as China. The apparel companies currently exporting to the U.S. from Bahrain are owned by foreign firms, they employ predominantly migrant workers from South Asia, and they have other production locations in the Gulf region, including Jordan and Egypt. Consequently, if garment manufacturers are unable to receive duty-free access to the U.S. market once TPLs expire in 2016, they are unlikely to stay in the country, in contrast to the textile companies, whose investments in Bahrain are far more significant. The report contains a series of recommendations regarding different ways in which Bahrain might continue to receive limited exemptions from the yarn-forward rules of origin after 2016. These proposals include, but are not limited to, an extension of the current benefit.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Gereffi, G; Frederick, S; Bair, J

Published Date

  • January 11, 2016

Start / End Page

  • 1 - 37

Published By

Place of Publication

  • Durham, NC


  • 37

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.13140/RG.2.1.3097.0963