HIV Infection Is Associated With Poor Outcomes for Patients With Anal Cancer in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era.
BACKGROUND: HIV status may affect outcomes after definitive chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer. OBJECTIVE: Here, we report a large series in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era comparing outcomes between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with anal cancer. DESIGN: This was a retrospective chart review. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at an outpatient oncology clinic at large academic center. PATIENTS: A total of 107 patients were reviewed, 39 HIV positive and 68 HIV negative. All of the patients underwent definitive chemoradiation for anal cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data on patient characteristics, treatment, toxicity, and outcomes were collected. Overall survival, colostomy-free survival, local recurrence-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 15 months. HIV-positive patients were younger (median, 52 vs 64 years; p < 0.001) and predominantly men (82% men vs 49% men; p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in T, N, or stage groups. HIV-positive patients had a significantly longer duration from biopsy to start of chemoradiation (mean number of days, 82 vs 54; p = 0.042). There were no differences in rates of acute toxicities including diarrhea, fatigue, or dermatitis. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher rates of hospitalization (33% vs 15%; p = 0.024). The 3-year overall survival rate was 42% in HIV-positive and 76% in HIV-negative patients (p = 0.037; HR, 2.335 (95% CI, 1.032-5.283)). Three-year colostomy-free survival was 67% in HIV-positive and 88% in HIV-negative patients (p = 0.036; HR, 3.231 (95% CI, 1.014-10.299)). Differences in overall survival rates were not significant on multivariate analysis. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its retrospective design and small patient numbers. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, HIV-positive patients had significantly worse overall and colostomy-free survival rates than HIV-negative patients. However, differences in survival were not significant on multivariate analysis. Additional studies are necessary to establish the etiology of this difference.
Grew, D; Bitterman, D; Leichman, CG; Leichman, L; Sanfilippo, N; Moore, HG; Du, K
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