ST2 pathogenetic profile in ambulatory heart failure patients.
BACKGROUND: Soluble ST2 is involved in multiple pathogenic pathways, including cardiac strain, inflammation, and myocardial necrosis with remodeling. The relative weight of ST2 and the point at which its prognostic value in heart failure (HF) is affected by different degrees of myocardial strain, inflammation, necrosis, and remodeling is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined whether soluble ST2 levels improves HF risk stratification relative to other biomarkers representative of multiple pathogenic pathways-N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; strain), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; inflammation), and galectin-3 and high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT; necrosis and remodeling)-in 1,015 patients with mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 33.5%. Mean follow-up was 4.2 ± 2.1 years. The correlation with soluble ST2 was highest with NT-proBNP (r = 0.32; P < .001) and lowest with galectin-3 (r = 0.15; P < .001). ST2 levels increased with increasing concentrations of the other biomarkers (P < .001 in all cases). During follow-up, 467 patients died. Soluble ST2 remained an independent prognosticator of risk at every tertile of each biomarker. This was observed even after adjusting for clinical parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Soluble ST2 may be regarded as a 3-in-1 prognosis biomarker in HF. ST2 provides valuable long-term risk stratification information in HF beyond that reported by other biomarkers of stretch, inflammation, necrosis, and remodeling.
Bayes-Genis, A; Januzzi, JL; Gaggin, HK; de Antonio, M; Motiwala, SR; Zamora, E; Galán, A; Domingo, M; Urrutia, A; Lupón, J
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