ST2 and prognosis in acutely decompensated heart failure: the International ST2 Consensus Panel.
ST2 is a member of the interleukin (IL) 1 receptor family that exists in 2 forms, a transmembrane receptor (ST2L) and a soluble receptor (sST2). The ligand of ST2 is IL-33, known to be involved in reducing tissue fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy in mechanically strained hearts. Through its ability to act as a decoy receptor, sST2 blocks the beneficial effects that occur when IL-33 attempts to bind to ST2L; experimentally, this leads to cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and ventricular dysfunction. In patients with acutely decompensated heart failure, elevated concentrations of sST2 are strongly associated with the presence and severity of the diagnosis and powerfully predict increased risk of heart failure complications including arrhythmia, pump failure, or death, independent of natriuretic peptides and other established or emerging biomarkers. The role of sST2 measurement in acutely decompensated heart failure evaluation and management will be discussed.
Januzzi, JL; Mebazaa, A; Di Somma, S
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