Soluble ST2 and galectin-3 in heart failure.
Circulating biomarkers that directly reflect disease progression, hemodynamics, and ventricular remodeling at a molecular level are critical to risk stratification in heart failure (HF), affording unique insights into pathophysiology not fully captured by traditional risk markers. Despite the wealth of data confirming the importance of natriuretic peptides in HF diagnosis and prognosis, residual clinical risk in HF suggests that additional biomarkers complementary to natriuretic peptides may be useful. In this article, the current literature addressing the role of these biomarkers in the clinical diagnosis and risk stratification in HF is summarized.
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