Feasibility and utility of screening for depression and anxiety disorders in patients with cardiovascular disease.
BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety in patients with cardiac disease are common and independently associated with morbidity and mortality. We aimed to explore the use of a 3-step approach to identify inpatients with cardiac disease with depression, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or panic disorder; understand the predictive value of individual screening items in identifying these disorders; and assess the relative prevalence of these disorders in this cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify depression and anxiety disorders in inpatients with cardiac disease as part of a care management trial, an iterative 3-step screening procedure was used. This included an existing 4-item (Coping Screen) tool in nursing data sets, a 5-item screen for positive Coping Screen patients (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 [PHQ-2], GAD-2, and an item about panic attacks), and a diagnostic evaluation using PHQ-9 and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders anxiety disorder modules. Overall, 6210 inpatients received the Coping Screen, 581 completed portions of all 3 evaluation steps, and 210 received a diagnosis (143 depression, 129 GAD, 30 panic disorder). Controlling for age, sex, and the other screening items, PHQ-2 items independently predicted depression (little interest/pleasure: odds ratio [OR]=6.65, P<0.001; depression: OR=5.24, P=0.001), GAD-2 items predicted GAD (anxious: OR=4.09, P=0.003; unable to control worrying: OR=10.46, P<0.001), and the panic item predicted panic disorder (OR=49.61, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: GAD was nearly as prevalent as depression in this cohort, and GAD-2 was an effective screening tool; however, panic disorder was rare. These results support the use of 2-step screening for depression and GAD beginning with a 4-item scale (GAD-2 plus PHQ-2). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique Identifier: NCT01201967. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01201967.
Celano, CM; Suarez, L; Mastromauro, C; Januzzi, JL; Huffman, JC
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