Beta-trace protein and cystatin c as predictors of major bleeding in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome.
BACKGROUND: Beta-trace protein (BTP) and cystatin C (CysC) are novel biomarkers of renal function. We assessed the ability of both to predict major bleeding (MB) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS), compared to other renal function parameters and clinical risk scores. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 273 patients. Blood samples were obtained within 24h of admission. The endpoint was MB. During a follow-up of 760 days (411-1,098 days), 25 patients (9.2%) had MB. Patients with MB had higher concentrations of BTP (0.98 mg/L; 0.71-1.16 mg/L vs. 0.72 mg/L, 0.60-0.91 mg/L, P=0.002), CysC (1.05 mg/L; 0.91-1.30 mg/L vs. 0.90 mg/L, 0.75-1.08 mg/L, P=0.003), higher CRUSADE score (39 ± 16 points vs. 29 ± 15 points, P=0.002) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; 66 ± 27 vs. 80 ± 30 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2), P=0.02) than patients without MB; there was no difference in creatinine level between the groups (P=0.14). After multivariable adjustment, both were predictors of MB, while eGFR and creatinine did not achieve statistical significance. Among subjects with eGFR >60 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2), those with elevated concentrations of both biomarkers had a significantly higher risk for MB. Net reclassification indexes from the addition of BTP and CysC to CRUSADE risk score were 38% and 21% respectively, while the relative integrated discrimination indexes were 12.5% and 3.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Among NSTE-ACS patients, BTP and CysC were superior to conventional renal parameters for predicting MB, and improved clinical stratification for hemorrhagic risk.
López-Cuenca, Á; Manzano-Fernández, S; Marín, F; Parra-Pallares, S; Navarro-Peñalver, M; Montalban-Larrea, S; Andreu-Cayuelas, JM; Romero-Aniorte, AI; Avilés-Plaza, F; Valdés-Chavarri, M; Januzzi, JL
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