Red blood cell distribution width predicts new-onset anemia in heart failure patients.
BACKGROUND: Hematologic abnormalities such as elevated red blood cell distribution width (RDW) as well as anemia are prognostically meaningful among heart failure (HF) patients. The inter-relationship between these hematologic abnormalities in HF is unclear, however. We therefore aimed to assess whether RDW is predicting changes in hemoglobin concentrations as well as onset of anemia. METHODS: 268 consecutive non-anemic patients with acutely decompensated HF (ADHF) were enrolled at hospital discharge and RDW was measured. At 6 month follow-up, change in hemoglobin as well as new-onset anemia was studied as a function of RDW at discharge. RESULTS: RDW at discharge correlated negatively with hemoglobin values at 6 months (r=-0.220; p<0.001); a greater decrease in hemoglobin concentration occurred in those with higher values of RDW at discharge (p=0.004), independently of baseline hemoglobin concentration and other risk factors. At 6 months, 54 patients (20%) developed new-onset anemia. RDW values at discharge were significantly higher among patients who developed new-onset anemia (15.1 ± 2.2 vs. 14.2 ± 1.4, p=0.005). In integrated discrimination improvement analyses, the addition of RDW measurement improved the ability to predict new-onset anemia (IDI 0.0531, p<0.001), beyond known risk factors as hemoglobin, renal function, age, diabetes mellitus, sex and HF symptom severity. In adjusted analyses, patients with RDW>15% (derived from receiver operating characteristic analysis) had a tripling of the risk of new-onset anemia (OR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5-5.1, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Among non-anemic patients with ADHF, RDW measurement at the time of hospital discharge independently predicts lower hemoglobin concentrations and new-onset anemia over a 6-month follow up period.
Pascual-Figal, DA; Bonaque, JC; Manzano-Fernández, S; Fernández, A; Garrido, IP; Pastor-Perez, F; Lax, A; Valdes, M; Januzzi, JL
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