Alpha 1-adrenoceptor activity in arterial smooth muscle following congestive heart failure.
The interactions between yohimbine (selective alpha 2-antagonist) with noradrenaline (mixed agonist) and phenylephrine (selective alpha 1-agonist) were studied in the canine dorsal pedal artery in an attempt to characterize the peripheral vascular response to adrenergic agents before and after the development of congestive heart failure in the dog. The contractile responses of the dorsal pedal artery to potassium chloride were also examined. Both noradrenaline and phenylephrine contracted the dorsal pedal artery in a concentration-dependent manner before and at peak heart failure, the responses to the agonists being enhanced at heart failure. The responses of the artery to potassium were not modified by congestive heart failure. Yohimbine caused concentration-dependent antagonism of noradrenaline, without altering the magnitude of the maximum response, providing pA2 values ranging from 8.26 to 7.06 against low and high concentrations of noradrenaline, respectively, before heart failure development. Following heart failure, the pA2 values for yohimbine against noradrenaline remained unchanged, but slopes from the Arunlakshana-Schild plots were significantly different from unity, implying a noncompetitive antagonism. The pA2 values of yohimbine against phenylephrine were at least 10 orders of magnitude lower than those against noradrenaline. After congestive heart failure, yohimbine was even less effective against high concentrations of phenylephrine. These findings suggest that enhanced vasoconstriction during heart failure results, in part, from increased alpha 1-adrenoceptor mechanisms in peripheral arterial smooth muscle.
Forster, C; Carter, SL; Armstrong, PW
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