Myocardial energetics and blood flow in acute rapid ventricular pacing.
The mechanism whereby chronic rapid ventricular pacing induces severe heart failure is unclear, but the phenomenon is associated with a reduction in left ventricular ATP levels. Accordingly, the current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute effects of rapid ventricular pacing on hemodynamics, left ventricular adenine nucleotide levels, myocardial blood flow, and oxygen consumption. Anesthetized dogs (n = 7) were studied in sinus rhythm and during 30 min of pacing at 250 beats/min. Pacing caused a significant (means +/- SD, all p < 0.001) decrease in cardiac output (3.0 +/- 0.6 to 2.0 +/- 0.6 L/min) and peak left ventricular systolic pressure (133 +/- 14 to 82 +/- 10 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133.3 Pa)) and an increase in pulmonary wedge pressure (10 +/- 2 to 18 +/- 3 mmHg). Following pacing, the peak first derivative of left ventricular pressure and the relaxation time constant, tau, remained unchanged compared with baseline values. Myocardial blood flow and oxygen consumption both increased by 70% with pacing. The transmural distribution of myocardial blood flow and myocardial lactate consumption remained unchanged. There was no change in left ventricular ATP or ADP levels with the observed increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Therefore, the hemodynamic deterioration associated with acute rapid ventricular pacing, in contrast to that of chronic pacing, is not associated with perturbed myocardial energetics.
Simmons, WW; Moe, GW; Grima, EA; Howard, RJ; Armstrong, PW
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