Response of atrial natriuretic factor to acute and chronic increases of atrial pressures in experimental heart failure in dogs. Role of changes in heart rate, atrial dimension, and cardiac tissue concentration.
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the role of changes in heart rate, atrial pressure, volume, and cardiac tissue atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) concentration in the modulation of plasma ANF concentration in a model of pacing-induced heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of acute right ventricular pacing (250 beats/min), acute volume expansion (35 ml/min), and volume expansion after 1 week of right ventricular pacing on plasma ANF concentration were compared in eight dogs (group 1). As shown during right ventricular pacing previously, volume expansion produced significant increases in cardiac filling pressures and left atrial volume. Right ventricular pacing and volume expansion produced similar increments in plasma ANF concentration: from 32 +/- 12 to 168 +/- 153 pg/ml (p less than 0.05) and from 32 +/- 9 to 137 +/- 113 pg/ml (p less than 0.05), respectively. When pacing was initiated after volume expansion, plasma ANF concentration increased further to 462 +/- 295 pg/ml (p less than 0.05) despite little change in filling pressures and left atrial volume. With repeated volume expansion after 1 week of pacing, there were no significant further increases in left atrial volume and plasma ANF concentrations (from 332 +/- 121 to 407 +/- 113 pg/ml) despite significant increases in filling pressures. Atrial and ventricular tissue samples were also obtained from 21 dogs paced to severe heart failure (group 2) and from 14 normal dogs (controls). In all groups, atrial ANF was higher than ventricular ANF concentration. At 1 week (group 1), left atrial appendage ANF concentration (6.2 +/- 2.5 versus 16.1 +/- 10.3 ng/mg) was reduced, whereas left ventricular free wall ANF concentration (0.62 +/- 0.31 versus 0.24 +/- 0.16 pg/mg) was increased compared with that of controls (both p less than 0.001). At severe heart failure (group 2), atrial ANF remained low, whereas ventricular ANF concentration was similar to that of the controls. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in pacing-induced heart failure, changes in heart rate, atrial pressure, and volume all contribute to the increased plasma ANF concentration. However, by 1 week (early heart failure), ANF release is attenuated, perhaps because of the inability of the atria to be stretched further and because of reduced atrial ANF concentration. In addition, the ventricle may be an additional source of ANF.
Moe, GW; Grima, EA; Angus, C; Wong, NL; Hu, DC; Howard, RJ; Armstrong, PW
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