Bone sialoprotein-collagen interaction promotes hydroxyapatite nucleation.
In bone, hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals are deposited onto the type I collagen scaffold by a mechanism that has yet to be elucidated. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an acidic phosphoprotein that is expressed at high levels in mineralized tissues, capable of binding type I collagen, and nucleating HA. Both bone-extracted and recombinant BSP (rBSP) bind with equal affinity to collagen. The nature of the BSP-collagen interaction and its role in HA nucleation are not known. We have used a solid-phase binding assay and affinity chromatography to characterize the BSP-collagen interaction. rBSP-binding affinities of triple-helical and fibrillar type I collagen were similar (K(D) approximately 13 nM), while that of heat-denatured type I collagen was lower (K(D) approximately 44 nM), indicating the importance of triple-helical structure in binding BSP. Pepsin treatment of collagen had no effect on rBSP binding, demonstrating that the telopeptides of collagen are not involved. The majority of collagen-bound rBSP was eluted by acetonitrile, indicating that hydrophobic interactions are principally responsible for binding. Using an HA-nucleation assay, it was shown that rBSP is ten-fold more potent in reconstituted fibrillar collagen gels than in agarose gels. Nucleating potency of a non-collagen-binding, HA-nucleating peptide [rBSP(134-206)] showed no difference in the two gel systems. The work here shows that optimal binding of rBSP requires collagen to be in a native, triple-helical structure, does not require the telopeptides, and is stabilized by hydrophobic interactions. Upon binding to collagen, rBSP displays an increase in nucleation potency, implying a co-operative effect of BSP and collagen in mineral formation.
Baht, GS; Hunter, GK; Goldberg, HA
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