Ectopic expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 promotes human breast cancer cell death and results in reduced expression of survivin.
The overexpression of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein, survivin, may provide tumor cells with a distinct survival advantage in situ; hence, therapeutic strategies have been designed to inhibit its expression. In this study, we ectopically expressed the interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-1 protein in the breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-468 and SK-BR-3 using a recombinant adenovirus (Ad-IRF-1). By screening microarray analysis of cDNA from the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 infected with Ad-IRF-1, we observed a 15-fold down-regulation of the survivin gene when compared with uninfected cells. Consequently, we tested survivin expression in Ad-IRF-1-infected MDA-MB-468 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines. Immunoblotting analyses supported the contention that ectopic expression of the IRF-1 protein results in down-regulation of survivin protein expression that is independent of p53. In addition, Ad-IRF-1 infection of these human breast cancer cell lines induces the expression of p21. We also report that increased apoptosis is observed in tumor cells infected with Ad-IRF-1 compared with Ad-Psi5 mock-infected cells and that cell death is further augmented when the IRF-1-infected cells are cultured with Adriamycin. Moreover, in a xenogeneic mouse model of breast carcinoma, in vivo treatment of tumor-bearing mice with intratumoral Ad-IRF-1 injections results in tumor growth inhibition. In resected tumors from mice that had been treated with Ad-IRF-1, tumor cells that express the IRF-1 transgene have a predominant IRF-1-positive, survivin-negative phenotype. Collectively, these observations suggest that therapies designed to enhance IRF-1 expression within tumor cells may represent novel treatment strategies for breast cancer.
Pizzoferrato, E; Liu, Y; Gambotto, A; Armstrong, MJ; Stang, MT; Gooding, WE; Alber, SM; Shand, SH; Watkins, SC; Storkus, WJ; Yim, JH
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