Ad-IRF-1 induces apoptosis in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
The nuclear transcription factor interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a putative tumor suppressor, but the expression and function of IRF-1 in esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) remain unknown. We hypothesized that IRF-1 expression was reduced or lost in EA and that restoration of IRF-1 would result in the apoptosis of EA cells in vitro and the inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Three EA cell lines were used to examine IRF-1 expression, IFN-gamma responsiveness, and the effects of IRF-1 overexpression using a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad-IRF-1). All three EA cell lines produced IRF-1 protein following IFN-gamma stimulation, although IFN-gamma did not induce cell death. In contrast, Ad-IRF-1 infection resulted in high levels of IRF-1 protein and triggered apoptosis in all three EA cell lines. Potential mechanisms for the differential response to IFN-gamma versus Ad-IRF-1--such as modulation of c-Met or extracellular regulated kinase signaling, or altered expression of IRF-2, Fas, or survivin--were investigated, but none of these mechanisms can account for this observation. In vivo administration of IRF-1 in a murine model of EA modestly inhibited tumor growth, but did not lead to tumor regression. Strategies aimed at increasing or restoring IRF-1 expression may have therapeutic benefits in EA.
Watson, GA; Queiroz de Oliveira, PE; Stang, MT; Armstrong, MJ; Gooding, WE; Kuan, S-F; Yim, JH; Hughes, SJ
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