Zostera marina meadows from the Gulf of California: conservation status


Journal Article

© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Eelgrass (Zostera marina) population estimates show a decreasing trend worldwide in the second half of the twentieth century. Mexico lacks long-term time series to determine trends for major eelgrass populations and has made no conservation efforts. Therefore, we present the first report on the historic presence of this annual coastal ecosystem in two wetlands of the Gulf of California (GC), the Infiernillo Channel (CIF, largest Z. marina population inside GC) and Concepcion Bay (BCP, the only eelgrass population along GC’s west coast), combining field surveys (1999–2010), aerial photography (2000–2010), satellite imagery (1972–2005), and published reports (1994–2007). Three parameters were used as indicators of conservation status: shoot density, seed banks, and aerial coverage. Average shoot density in the CIF (741 shoots m−2) was 3.8 times higher than in BCP (194 shoots m−2), and average seed bank density was similar in both wetlands (17,442 seeds m−2 vs. 17,000 seeds m−2). Opportunistic seagrass Ruppia maritima was observed in both wetlands, with higher abundance in summer when Z. marina disappears due to high water temperatures. Eelgrass coverage was three orders of magnitude greater in the CIF (9725 ha) than in BCP (3 ha). The striking difference between these wetlands is the lack of environmental protection for BCP and the protection of the CIF by the Seri indigenous community, which increases human pressure in the former, putting it at high risk of disappearing. Conservation of eelgrass meadows is not only necessary to preserve their ecosystem services but to insure the survival of migratory populations (Pacific brant goose, Branta bernicla), endangered species (Black turtle, Chelonia mydas), and fisheries-related species.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Lopez-Calderon, JM; Riosmena-Rodríguez, R; Torre, J; Meling, A; Basurto, X

Published Date

  • February 1, 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 25 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 261 - 273

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1572-9710

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0960-3115

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1007/s10531-016-1045-6

Citation Source

  • Scopus