The Role of CD44 in Glucose Metabolism in Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma.
While prostatic adenocarcinomas are relatively indolent, some patients with advanced adenocarcinomas recur with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma which is highly aggressive and lethal. Because glycolysis is a feature of malignancy and the degree of glycolysis generally correlates with tumor aggressiveness, we wanted to compare the metabolic differences and the molecular mechanisms involved between the two tumor types. In this study, and based on previous characterization, LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines were selected as models of prostatic adenocarcinoma and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, respectively. In addition to measuring glucose consumption, lactate secretion, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, we performed metabolic profiling in these two model systems. The role of CD44 was studied by RNAi and lentivirus-mediated overexpression. Expression of key enzymes in glycolysis was studied using human tissue microarrays containing benign prostate, adenocarcinoma, and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Results showed that glycolytic features of PC-3 cells were higher than that of LNCaP cells. PFKFB4 was overexpressed in human small cell carcinoma tissue versus adenocarcinoma tissue. CD44 regulated glucose metabolism, intracellular ROS, and cell proliferation in PC-3 cells. Inhibition of CD44 also sensitized PC-3 cells to carboplatin. In conclusion, this study suggests different pathways of glucose metabolism contribute to the disparate biologic behaviors of these two tumor types.CD44 is an important regulator of glucose metabolism in small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and may be an important therapeutic target.
Li, W; Cohen, A; Sun, Y; Squires, J; Braas, D; Graeber, TG; Du, L; Li, G; Li, Z; Xu, X; Chen, X; Huang, J
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