Cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy for gallbladder cancer: a retrospective review.
Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often prolongs survival in patients with peritoneal surface disease, yet is generally avoided in patients with peritoneal spread from gallbladder cancer as a result of its aggressive biologic behavior. Therefore, we reviewed our experience with CRS/HIPEC for patients with gallbladder cancer. We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of CRS/HIPEC procedures performed from 1991 to 2013 using a prospectively maintained database of 1069 procedures. Patient and tumor characteristics, morbidity, mortality, and survival were reviewed. CRS/HIPEC was performed six times in five patients with peritoneal spread from gallbladder cancer. Patients were young (age 28 to 54 years) without pre-existing comorbidities. Eighty per cent had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score of 0 or 1. At CRS, organs resected included omentum (n = 4), liver (n = 3), colon (n = 2), ovaries (n = 1), and diaphragm (n = 1). A complete macroscopic cytoreduction of intraperitoneal disease was achieved in every case. Clavien graded major morbidity was 17 per cent. There was no observed mortality. Median and 3-year survival were 22.4 months and 30 per cent, respectively. CRS/HIPEC may be performed safely in patients with peritoneal dissemination from gallbladder cancer. Carefully selected patients with low-volume disease amenable to complete cytoreduction may experience a meaningful survival benefit.
Randle, RW; Levine, EA; Clark, CJ; Stewart, JH; Shen, P; Votanopoulos, KI
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