Intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy: an evolving paradigm for the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies.
Unfortunately, advanced colorectal cancer is often present at the time the disease is diagnosed. Many intra-abdominal malignancies spread throughout the peritoneal cavity, which is known as carcinomatosis. Peritoneal carcinomatosis is uniformly a terminal disease with a median survival of 6 months. Systemic chemotherapy is palliative and generally provides limited improvement in survival. Conventional surgery has typically been limited to ileostomy, colostomy or intestinal bypass procedures. Cytoreductive surgery alone has long been used to treat macroscopic disease, with limited success. However, cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy (IPHC) has evolved into a novel approach for peritoneal surface malignancy. IPHC was initially described in a canine model by Spratt. Although the first clinical series of peritoneal perfusion were small, Japanese trials, which utilized IPHC for prophylaxis in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, Fujimoto was the first to report an improvement in survival for established gastric cracinomatosis. This early work provided the proof-of-principle for what has evolved into current management with aggressive cytoreduction and IPHC. The present review will outline the rationale, current practice and future directions of IPHC in the management of peritoneal surface malignancies.
Stewart, JH; Shen, P; Levine, EA
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