Predictors of survival, neurologic death, local failure, and distant failure after gamma knife radiosurgery for melanoma brain metastases.
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to assess clinical outcomes in patients receiving gamma knife radiosurgery (GK) for treatment of brain metastases from melanoma and evaluate for potential predictive factors. METHODS: We reviewed 188 GK procedures in 129 consecutive patients that were treated for brain metastases from melanoma. The population consisted of 84 males and 45 females with a median age of 57 years. Fifty-five patients (43%) had a single metastasis. Seventy-one patients (55%) received chemotherapy, 58 patients (45%) received biologic agents, and 36 patients (28%) received prior whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The median marginal dose was 18.8 Gy (range 12 to 24 Gy). RESULTS: Actuarial survival was 52%, 26%, and 13% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The median survival time was 6.7 months. Local tumor control was 95%, 81% 53% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The median time to LBF was 25.2 months. Freedom from distant brain failure was 40%, 29%, and 10% at 6, 12, and 24 months, and the median time to DBF was 4.6 months. At the time of data analysis, 108 patients (84%) had died. Fifty-eight patients (52%) died from neurologic death. The median time to neurologic death from GK treatment was 7.9 months. Multivariate analysis revealed that hemorrhage of metastases prior to GK (P = .02) and LBF (P = .03) were the dominant predictors of neurologic death. CONCLUSIONS: GK achieves excellent local control and may improve outcomes as a component of a multidisciplinary treatment strategy. Distant brain failure and neurologic demise remain problematic and prospective trials are necessary.
Neal, MT; Chan, MD; Lucas, JT; Loganathan, A; Dillingham, C; Pan, E; Stewart, JH; Bourland, JD; Shaw, EG; Tatter, SB; Ellis, TL
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