Rapid photothermal intracellular drug delivery using multiwalled carbon nanotubes.
Carbon nanotubes are unique materials that absorb infrared (IR) radiation, especially between 700 and 1100 nm, where body tissues are most transparent. Absorbed IR promotes molecular oscillation leading to efficient heating of the surrounding environment. A method to enhance drug localization for peritoneal malignancies is perfusion of warm (40-42 degrees C) chemotherapeutic agents in the abdomen. However, all tissues in the peritoneal cavity are subjected to enhanced drug delivery due to increased cell membrane permeability at hyperthermic temperatures. Here we show that rapid heating (within ten seconds) of colorectal cancer cells to 42 degrees C, using infrared stimulation of nanotubes as a heat source, in the presence of the drugs oxaliplatin or mitomycin C, is as effective as two hours of radiative heating at 42 degrees C for the treatment of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer. We demonstrate increased cell membrane permeability due to hyperthermia from multiwalled carbon nanotubes in close proximity to cell membranes and that the amount of drug internalized by colorectal cancer cells heated quickly using carbon nanotubes equals levels achieved during routine application of hyperthermia at 42 degrees C. This approach has the potential to be used as a rapid bench to bedside clinical therapeutic agent with significant impact for localizing chemotherapy agents during the surgical management of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer.
Levi-Polyachenko, NH; Merkel, EJ; Jones, BT; Carroll, DL; Stewart, JH
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