Vesicular stomatitis virus as a treatment for colorectal cancer.
M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis virus is an attractive candidate oncolytic virus for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer due to its ability to kill cancer cells that are defective in their antiviral responses. The oncolytic activity of recombinant wild-type and M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis viruses was determined in RKO, Hct116 and LoVo colorectal cancer cells, as well as in human fibroblast and hepatocyte primary cultures. RKO and Hct116 cells were sensitive to both viruses, whereas LoVo cells were resistant. [(35)S]methionine labeling experiments and viral plaque assays showed that sensitive and resistant colorectal cancer cells supported viral protein and progeny production after infection with either virus. Colorectal cancer cells were pretreated with β-interferon and infected with vesicular stomatitis virus to evaluate the extent to which interferon signaling is downregulated in colorectal cancer cells. Although colorectal cancer cells retained some degree of interferon signaling, this signaling did not negatively impact the oncolytic effects of either virus in sensitive cells. Murine xenografts of RKO cells were effectively treated by intratumoral injections with M protein mutant virus, whereas LoVo xenografts were resistant to treatment with this virus. These results suggest that M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis virus is a good candidate oncolytic virus for the treatment of selected metastatic colorectal cancers.
Stewart, JH; Ahmed, M; Northrup, SA; Willingham, M; Lyles, DS
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