Prevalence and correlates of proteinuria in Kampala, Uganda: a cross-sectional pilot study.
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in sub-Saharan Africa, few community-based screenings have been conducted in Uganda. Opportunities to improve the management of CKD in sub-Saharan Africa are limited by low awareness, inadequate access, poor recognition, and delayed presentation for clinical care. Therefore, the Uganda Kidney Foundation engaged key stakeholders in performing a screening event on World Kidney Day. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional pilot study in March 2013 from a convenience sample of adult, urban residents in Kampala, Uganda. We advertised the event using radio and television announcements, newspapers, billboards, and notice boards at public places, such as places of worship. Subsequently, we screened for proteinuria, hypertension, fasting glucose impairment, and obesity in a central and easily-accessible location. RESULTS: We enrolled 141 adults most of whom were female (57 %), young (64 %; 18-39 years), and had a professional occupation (52 %). The prevalence of proteinuria (13 %; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 7-19 %), hypertension (38 %; 95 % CI 31-47 %), and impaired fasting glucose (13 %; 95 % CI 9-20 %) were high in this study population. Proteinuria was most prevalent among young (18-39 years) adults (n = 14; 16 %) and among those who reported a history of alcohol intake (n = 10; 32 %). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of proteinuria was high among a convenience sample of urban residents in a sub-Saharan African setting. These results represent an important effort by the Ugandan Kidney Foundation to increase awareness and recognition of CKD, and they will help formulate additional epidemiological studies on NCDs in Uganda which are urgently needed and now feasible.
Lunyera, J; Stanifer, JW; Ingabire, P; Etolu, W; Bagasha, P; Egger, JR; Patel, UD; Mutungi, G; Kalyesubula, R
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