A review of the environmental implications of in situ remediation by nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI): Behavior, transport and impacts on microbial communities.
The increasing use of strategies incorporating nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) for soil and groundwater in situ remediation is raising some concerns regarding the potential adverse effects nZVI could have on indigenous microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. This review provides an overview of the current literature pertaining to the impacts of nZVI applications on microbial communities. Toxicity studies suggest that cell membrane disruption and oxidative stress through the generation of Fe(2+) and reactive oxygen species by nZVI are the main mechanisms contributing to nZVI cytotoxicity. In addition, nZVI has been shown to substantially alter the taxonomic and functional composition of indigenous microbial communities. However, because the physico-chemical conditions encountered in situ highly modulate nZVI toxicity, a better understanding of the environmental factors affecting nZVI toxicity and transport in the environment is of primary importance in evaluating the ecological consequences that could result from a more extensive use of nZVI.
Lefevre, E; Bossa, N; Wiesner, MR; Gunsch, CK
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