Gradated assembly of multiple proteins into supramolecular nanomaterials.
Biomaterials exhibiting precise ratios of different bioactive protein components are critical for applications ranging from vaccines to regenerative medicine, but their design is often hindered by limited choices and cross-reactivity of protein conjugation chemistries. Here, we describe a strategy for inducing multiple different expressed proteins of choice to assemble into nanofibres and gels with exceptional compositional control. The strategy employs 'βTail' tags, which allow for good protein expression in bacteriological cultures, yet can be induced to co-assemble into nanomaterials when mixed with additional β-sheet fibrillizing peptides. Multiple different βTail fusion proteins could be inserted into peptide nanofibres alone or in combination at predictable, smoothly gradated concentrations, providing a simple yet versatile route to install precise combinations of proteins into nanomaterials. The technology is illustrated by achieving precisely targeted hues using mixtures of fluorescent proteins, by creating nanofibres bearing enzymatic activity, and by adjusting antigenic dominance in vaccines.
Hudalla, GA; Sun, T; Gasiorowski, JZ; Han, H; Tian, YF; Chong, AS; Collier, JH
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