The physics origin of the hierarchy of bodies in space

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Here we show that bodies of the same size suspended uniformly in space constitute a system (a "suspension") in a state of uniform volumetric tension because of mass-to-mass forces of attraction. The system "snaps" hierarchically, and evolves faster to a state of reduced tension when the bodies coalesce spontaneously nonuniformly, i.e., hierarchically, into few large and many small bodies suspended in the same space. Hierarchy, not uniformity, is the design that emerges, and it is in accord with the constructal law. The implications of this principle of physics in natural organization and evolution are discussed.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Bejan, A; Wagstaff, RW

Published Date

  • March 7, 2016

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 119 / 9

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1089-7550

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0021-8979

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1063/1.4941986

Citation Source

  • Scopus