In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo isotherms for renal cryotherapy.
PURPOSE: Preoperative planning for renal cryotherapy is based on isotherms established in gel. We replicated gel isotherms and correlated them with ex vivo and in vivo isotherms in a porcine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PERC-17 CryoProbes (1.7 mm) and IceRods (1.47 mm) underwent trials in gel, ex vivo and in vivo porcine kidneys. Temperatures were recorded at 13 predetermined locations with multipoint thermal sensors. RESULTS: At the cryoprobe temperatures were not significantly different along the probe in any medium for either system (p = 0.0947 to 0.9609). However, away from the probe ex vivo and in vivo trials showed warmer temperatures toward the cryoprobe tip for each system (p = 0.0003 to 0.2141). Mean +/- SE temperature 5 mm distal to the cryoprobe tip in vivo was 19.2C +/- 16.1C for CryoProbes and 27.3C +/- 11.2C for IceRods. Temperatures were consistently colder with CryoProbes than with IceRods in gel (p <0.00005), ex vivo (p <0.00005) and in vivo (p = 0.0014). At almost all sites temperatures were significantly colder in gel and in ex vivo kidney than in in vivo kidney for CryoProbes (p = 0.0107 and 0.0008, respectively) and for IceRods (each p <0.00005). CONCLUSIONS: Gel and ex vivo isotherms do not predict the in vivo pattern of freezing. Thus, they should not be used for preoperative planning. The cryoprobe should be passed 5 mm beyond the tumor border to achieve suitably cold temperatures. Multipoint thermal sensor probes are recommended to record actual temperature during renal cryotherapy.
Young, JL; Kolla, SB; Pick, DL; Sountoulides, P; Kaufmann, OG; Ortiz-Vanderdys, CG; Huynh, VB; Kaplan, AG; Andrade, LA; Osann, KE; Louie, MK; McDougall, EM; Clayman, RV
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)