Striatonigral control of movement velocity in mice.
The basal ganglia have long been implicated in action initiation. Using three-dimensional motion capture, we quantified the effects of optogenetic stimulation of the striatonigral (direct) pathway on movement kinematics. We generated transgenic mice with channelrhodopsin-2 expression in striatal neurons that express the D1-like dopamine receptor. With optic fibres placed in the sensorimotor striatum, an area known to contain movement velocity-related single units, photo-stimulation reliably produced movements that could be precisely quantified with our motion capture programme. A single light pulse was sufficient to elicit movements with short latencies (< 30 ms). Increasing stimulation frequency increased movement speed, with a highly linear relationship. These findings support the hypothesis that the sensorimotor striatum is part of a velocity controller that controls rate of change in body configurations.
Bartholomew, RA; Li, H; Gaidis, EJ; Stackmann, M; Shoemaker, CT; Rossi, MA; Yin, HH
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