Activation of NAD(P)H oxidase by lipid hydroperoxides: mechanism of oxidant-mediated smooth muscle cytotoxicity.
Oxidized lipids, such as 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. 13-HPODE, a constituent of oxidized low-density lipoproteins, can induce cytotoxicity of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), which may facilitate plaque destabilization and/or rupture. 13-HPODE-induced cytotoxicity has been linked to oxidative stress, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. In the present study, we show that 13-HPODE and 9-HPODE (10-30 microM) increased superoxide (O2*-) production and induced cytotoxicity in SMC. The 13-HPODE-induced increase in O2*- was blocked by transfecting the cells with antisense oligonucleotides against p22phox, suggesting that the O2*- was produced by NAD(P)H oxidase. Similar concentrations of the corresponding HPODE reduction products, 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) and 9-HODE, neither increased O2*- production nor induced cytotoxicity, while 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE), an unsaturated aldehyde lipid peroxidation product, induced cytotoxicity without increasing O2*- production. Treatment with superoxide dismutase or Tiron to scavenge O2*-, or transfection with p22phox antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit O2*- production, attenuated 13-HPODE-induced cytotoxicity, but not that induced by 4-HNE. These findings suggest that activation of NAD(P)H oxidase, and production of O2*-, play an important role in lipid hydroperoxide-induced smooth muscle cytotoxicity.
Li, W-G; Stoll, LL; Rice, JB; Xu, S-P; Miller, FJ; Chatterjee, P; Hu, L; Oberley, LW; Spector, AA; Weintraub, NL
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